A patient with complex, advanced stage type 2 diabetes – where do we start?

14th September 2019. Dr Chee L Khoo

We all have patients similar to this presenting to the practice not that infrequently. This is a real case that I came across just recently. Joanne was referred to the practice by a friend of a friend. She had just been discharged from the local hospital after three weeks following amputation of the lateral two toes of her right foot.

Double diabetes means double jeopardy

10th September 2019. Dr Chee L Khoo

Have you noticed that most patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not only small and petite but are often devoid of muscles when diagnosed. Insulin is a growth factor and without endogenous insulin, muscle growth is often stymied. We can’t push insulin therapy too hard because it will result in hypoglycaemia. Patients with T1D generally have normal lipids (especially triglycerides) and don’t have elements of metabolic syndrome.…

Pancreatic cancer screening – why are we not there yet?

10th September, 2019. Dr Chee L Khoo

Let’s face it. We all dread the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in any of our patients. There aren’t too many red flags that we can rely on to warn us that something is not right with this deep seated abdominal organ. Many of the symptoms are either subtle or non-specific like nausea, intermittent epigastric pain, nausea, weight loss, loss of appetite or back pain.…

DOMTRU GP Diabetes Injectable Workshop Masterclass 2019

It’s here again. The DOMTRU GP Diabetes Injectable Workshop Masterclass will be held at Mercure Hotel, Liverpool on Sunday 10th November with a totally new agenda. Over the last 12 months we have presented numerous articles detailing the multiple trials and guidelines surrounding the usage of the new GLP1-Ras and insulins. There are now 5 different GLP1-Ras in Australia all with their different pharmacokinetics, cardiovascular outcome data and PBS listings.…

Lipid guidelines – what’s new in 2019?

23rd August 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

Remember we used to have lipid targets for patients with diabetes and patients with cardiovascular disease. Life was simple then. Just follow those numbers. Then the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines told us to throw away those targets and put everyone with cardiovascular (CV) risk above a certain figure on maximally tolerated statins. It’s kind of set and forget strategy.…

SGLT2i, GLP1-RA and CVOTs – sorting out the confusion

11th August 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

All new anti-diabetic agents since 2008 have been mandated by the US FDA to conduct cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOT) to ensure that they are safe, or in statistical jargon, “non-inferior” to placebo in relation to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). 15 CVOTs assessing DPP‐4 inhibitors, GLP‐1 receptor agonists and SGLT‐2 inhibitors have been completed by the end of 2018 with several others to come yet.…

Visceral fat deposits – not all fat deposits carry the same risk

28th July 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Visceral obesity is a better correlate with cardiometabolic risk, morbidity and mortality than general obesity. However, not all visceral fat depositions are the same. Some visceral fat depositions are worse than others in their contribution to atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk. The development of new imaging techniques has revolutionised the study of human body composition including measures of visceral fat.…

At least 3 other reasons why you should use GLP1-RAs early in diabetes management

13th July 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

New anti-diabetic agents are coming thick and fast. It is easy to get confused as to which agent to use. For injectables, there are currently at least a dozen different insulin preparations and 5 GLP1 -Receptor Analogues (GLP1-RAs) available in Australia. Some are on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), some not. It is easy to put them all in the too hard basket.…

Cardiovascular health – are eggs in or out?

13th July 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

First, it’s not good, then it’s Ok and now we are not sure. Maybe it is, maybe it isn’t. We are talking about eggs and the association with cardiovascular disease and mortality. It’s stuck in many of our and our patients’ minds that eggs are no good. It doesn’t help when the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans came out with somewhat contradictory recommendations: “ (1) Cholesterol is not a nutrient of concern for overconsumption” and (2) “Individuals should eat as little dietary cholesterol as possible while consuming a healthy eating pattern” (1).…

Fasting or non-fasting lipid levels – doesn’t it really matter?

22nd June 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

It is standard to measure blood lipids after an 8-12 hour fast. Pretty much all our guidelines for management of cardiometabolic conditions are based on these fasting blood levels. The actual reading is important because it guides us to determine whether a patient is commenced on a statin or not. Do meals affect lipid levels?…

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and serum cholesterol– is lower necessarily better?

22nd June 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

Distal polyneuropathy (DPN) is one of the more severe complications of diabetes. The exact pathologic metabolic process of DPN is still uncertain but it is more common in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) than in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) even after adjusting for glucose levels. Thus, in addition to hyperglycaemia, other factors could be involved in the development of DPN such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and renal impairment. …