CV disease and inflammation – where do the cells come from?

22nd May 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

The close association of inflammation and cardiovascular disease is well known for some time. Inflammation is an essential mediator of all stages of atherosclerosis, from initiation to progression and the development of thrombotic complications (1,2). Circulating immune cells play a critical role in the build-up of atherosclerotic plaques by adhering to activated endothelium and infiltrating the arterial wall to become lesional cells (3).…

PPIs and diabetes – is there a link?


13th May 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

Another month, another commonly used class of drugs are implicated in either aggravating glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or actually, increase the risk of developing T2D. This month, we a report suggesting the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), as a class of agent, is associated with increased risk of developing T2D.…

Dasiglucagon – finally here?

12th May 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

severe hypoglycaemia

It’s been more than 4 years since we herald the arrival of the stable formulation of the new glucagon, dasiglucagon in a ready-to-use delivery device for the management of hypoglycaemia. If you think about how much time is wasted in the emergency treatment of hypoglycaemia. The existing glucagon emergency kits we currently have need reconstitution before administration.…

Type 2 diabetes and cancers – what and why?

24th April 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

There have many observational studies that have shown increased risks of a variety of cancers in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes independent of body mass index (BMI). Cancer is also the second most common cause of death in patients with diabetes. Up to 18% of patients with cancers have diabetes.…

The glucose pattern that predates pancreatic cancer

21st April 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

We have discussed the two-way relationship between pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes are at 1.5-2.0 times higher risk of developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In patients with T2D, the development of PDAC destabilises glucose homeostasis pretty much in all patients with T2D. In patients that do not have T2D, the development of PDAC pushes them across the threshold of T2D up to 6-12 months before the diagnosis.…

GLP1-RAs and gallbladder diseases – is there a connection?

biliary system

12th April 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

It’s almost close to a wonder drug. It is widely used in type 2 diabetes (T2D) for management of hyperglycaemia when the HbA1c is >7.0%. For that indication, it is pretty potent and in clinical trials, can reduce the HbA1c by 1-1.5%. It also assists in weight reduction and thence, reduce the core problem of insulin resistance in these patients.…

SGLT2i/GLP-1RA combo – is two better than one?

22nd March 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


If you don’t already know that SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have significant cardiovascular (and renal) benefits over and above its glucose lowering action, you better catch up with our many, many past issues at GPVoice. You should also be as familiar with the similar benefits of the GLP1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), especially the newer weekly injectables.…

Statins in T2D – friend or foe?

12th March 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

Nox family
friend or foe?

When you look at the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), almost all the patients are on a statin for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular complications. I suspect that those that are not already on a statin should be on as some doctors are not aware of the tightened lipid targets in the management of patients with T2D.…

Fixed dose combination – what else can we combine with insulin?

7th March 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


We are all familiar with various fixed dose combination of glucose lowering agents. We have DDP4 inhibitors + metformin, SGLT2 inhibitors + Metformin and SGLT2 inhibitors + DPP4 inhibitors. We also have combination insulins for some time – rapid acting insulin + long acting insulin (so-called pre-mix or co-formulations). Pharmacologically, they make sense as these combined agents either work via different mechanisms or have different pharmacokinetics.…

Familial hypercholesterolaemia is rare but what can it teach us?

27th February 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is one of those conditions that allow us to prescribe the new PCSK9 inhibitors under PBS Authority. It is a pretty rare inherited disorder resulting in extremely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels and significantly elevated risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Despite the extreme high risks, HoFH is usually go unrecognised and if recognised are diagnosed late and undertreated.…

Urgent Urgent Urgent – TOBOGM for GDM

14th February 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

Early GDM – is treatment necessary?

TOBOGM is its final stages of recruitment. TOBOGM is the very first study to see if immediate treatment of early GDM increases or reduces pregnancy complications among women with mildly higher blood glucose diagnosed before 20 weeks’ gestation. The world is waiting on the results of this landmark study.…

Quadruple therapy for heart failure – no more excuses

27th January 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

At GPVoice, we have covered the management of heart failure fairly comprehensively over the last couple of years. In particular, we explored the cardiovascular benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) especially in patients with heart failure. Initial studies looked at patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) although subsequent studies found the benefits was also seen in patients with preserve ejection fraction (HFpEF) although only empagliflozin has reported.…