The 4th Pillar in treatment of CKD

31st May 2024, A/Prof Chee L Khoo


Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors have been the cornerstone treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many years now. They have been shown to protect kidneys and at the same time reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Finerenone was recently shown to do the same. These three agents are now the guideline-directed three pillars in the treatment of CKD.…

Colchicine to reduce CVD – is it prime time yet?

12th May 2024, A/Prof Chee L Khoo


We are used to using colchicine for acute treatment of gout but colchicine has also proven itself a key pharmacotherapy in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions such as pericardial disease (1), post-operative atrial fibrillation (2) and coronary artery disease (3). Colchicine disrupts the inflammatory response in acute gout but the inflammatory pathways that colchicine acts on are also found in other inflammatory diseases including coronary artery disease.…

BP control – a novel way to address medication adherence?

24th February 2024, A/Prof Chee L Khoo

BP Control

We all know how important it is for BP control in prevention cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. We are also aware of the difficulty is improving medication adherence. We have a broad range of effective BP lowering medications covering diverse classes of medications. Anti-hypertensives work only if our patients take them regularly.…

Amiodarone toxicity – nastier than you think

13th January 2024, Conjoint A/Prof Chee L Khoo

Amiodarone toxicity

Amiodarone started life as an anti-angina drug but it’s used primarily for its anti-arrhythmic properties these days. That’s not because it is such a good anti-arrhythmic agent (AAD) but because there just aren’t that many good and safe anti-arrhythmic agents around. We are all aware of amiodarone’s thyroid effects (hypo or hyper) and we monitor them closely as long as they are on amiodarone.…

Marathon running – putting science into practice

27th December 2023, A/Prof Chee L Khoo

Endurance athlete

When we think about extreme physical activity (EPA) such as marathon running, apart from the perceived issue of wearing out knee and hip joints (that’s another issue, another day), we think about the cardiovascular risks or benefits that comes with this intense physical activity. We explored the issue of marathon running and cardiovascular risks 9 months ago here.…

CKD in T1D – any advances in management?

27th December 2023, A/Prof Chee L Khoo


Not surprisingly, if dysglycaemia is the major contributor to microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), the same complications must plaque our patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, we haven’t had many major advances in the management for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with T1D for decades.…

High Resolution Chest CT

2nd November 2023, Spectrum Medical Imaging


There is still many cases of Covid-19 infection sprouting here and there. We are now seeing patients with ongoing cough and we sometimes suspect long Covid amongst them. A high resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest is a CT technique in which thin-slice images of the chest are obtained and post-processed in a high-spatial-frequency reconstruction algorithm.…

MAFLD to MASLD – another name change again?

28th October 2023, A/Prof Chee L Khoo


It’s all deja-vu again. In January, we discussed the name change from NAFLD to MAFLD. We also discussed how the metabolic dysfunction fatty liver disease (MAFLD) nomenclature and definition were not quite universally accepted internationally. Somehow, we knew that MAFLD was really a temporary placeholder. And indeed, it was and many international bodies have got together since then and put together a consensus nomenclature for metabolic dysfunction associated steatotic liver disease or MASLD (pronounced MASL-D).…

DVT – how does duplex US look for it?

11th October, 2023, NIA


Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a medical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is vital that a rapid diagnosis can be acquired since DVT can result in severe complications including the development of pulmonary embolism (PE). The consequences of PE can be life-threatening. About 10% of PEs are fatal and 5% will cause death later despite diagnosis and treatment.…

COPD – which puffer/s?

10th September 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo


We looked at the new understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD last fortnight. Armed with that information, we may be able to make sense of which puffer to use for which patient and what to escalate during their exacerbations. We already do that but, I must admit, rather haphazardly. It, kind of, depends on what samples I have in the drug cupboard or when the last pharma rep came to sell their ware.…

That receding hairline – what treatment is best?

Androgenetic Alopecia

13th August 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo

Many of the male doctors are slowly losing the battle against male pattern alopecia. It’s either thinning or receding. For those who are not there yet, it’s coming. We are also seeing women joining the club. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in humans affecting 80% of Caucasian men and 50% of Caucasian women.[1].…