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Dapagliflozin more than DECLARE its CV benefits

13th November 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

It’s finally here. The Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events–Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58 (DECLARE–TIMI 58) trial finally released their results this week at the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2018. The results were most impressive but this was not just another CV outcome trial of another SGLT2 inhibitors. The results have major implications in the way we treat patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in general practice.…

Floppy Iris Syndrome – is your patient at risk?

12th November 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) was first described by Chang and Campbell. It is characterised by floppiness of the iris, miosis and ultimately, iris prolapse through the surgical wounds. It can occur during surgery for cataract and if not anticipated, it increases the risk of posterior capsule rupture, vitreous loss, retained nuclear fragments, post op intraocular pressure spikes, irido-dialysis, hyphema and corneal endothelial loss.…

Metallic implants/prosthesis – are they MRI safe?

28th October 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Metallic objects, implants or prosthesis can render magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unsafe or affect the quality of the images. Our patients who have metallic joint prosthesis in-situ not uncommonly require further imaging. This can pose a bit of a challenge as many of the same patient population who require the joint replacement are the same population of patient that require further imaging.…

GLP1 agonists – are you up-to-date with them?

28th October 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

There are now 7 glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP 1) injectable analogues used to control hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). An eighth GLP1 analogue is now available as an oral form. Only four of them are available in Australia of which three are on the PBS under authority prescription (Byetta, Bydureon, Trulicity).…

ACE Inhibitors & Lung Cancer – is it for real?

28th October 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Most of you would have read about the recent study linking angiotensin converting enzymes inhibitors (ACEI) to the risk of lung cancer. This was published in the BMJ last week. it was a bit of a surprise to some extent although once the dust settled, it wasn’t that surprising after all. ACEI causes a build-up of bradykinin in the lungs and bradykinin has been reported to stimulate growth of lung cancers.…

Finally, what comes after metformin – the latest ADA/EASD guidelines made easy

11th October 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Over the last 20 years, 5 classes of anti-diabetic agents are now available to choose from. This is great but which do you use after metformin? Guidelines after guidelines in Australia and internationally leave that decision up to us to make the choice on behalf of our patients. They all have different mechanisms of action but pretty much all of them have similar efficacy, reducing HbA1c by about 1.0%.…

Guidelines, guidelines and guidelines – the secret to keeping up to date

30th September, 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

One of the many challenges in general practice is keeping up with new management guidelines. Another week another guideline somewhere. Even if you are made aware of the existence of those guidelines and have access to them, the guidelines are usually 150-200 pages long. Even the executive summary runs into half a dozen pages.…

Psoriatic Arthropathy & Metabolic Syndrome – the role of the GP

30th September 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

10-40% of patients with psoriasis have joint manifestations as part of a multi-system inflammatory disease (1). There is a strong association between psoriasis and elements of metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that patients with psoriasis have increased cardio-metabolic morbidity and mortality. Like other auto-immune collagen diseases, psoriatic arthropathy (PsA) often necessitate a referral to the specialists to manage the systemic and joint disease.…

Sulfonylureas – the bad guy again!

30th September 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Sulfonylurea (SU) is still one of the most commonly prescribed anti-diabetic agent for type 2 diabetes (T2D)1. These patients may have put on a few kilograms of weight over the years but then they are overweight anyway. Weight gain when one gets older is pretty much expected anyway. They may have a few cardiovascular events here and there but then patients with T2D are known to have a higher risk of CV events.…

Aspirin use prevents serious CV events in diabetes but…

15th September, 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

There is definitely a role for aspirin in preventing cardiovascular (CV) events in patients who already had a CV event (secondary prevention).  There is always a risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding.  Because the risk of another event after the first is often significantly higher, when one works out the risk benefit ratio, the benefits of aspirin use usually wins.…

Ondansetron – is it safe in pregnancy?

15th September, 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Nausea and vomiting affects up to 80% of pregnancies but severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy or hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) can affect up to 1% of pregnancy. As GPs, we are often the first port of call for these women. We know how debilitating it is to those women. There is also an significant economic impact not just because of many of these women ended up in hospital on more than one occasion before 20 weeks of gestation but many (and often their partners) can’t go to work during this period.…

Diabetic Nephropathy – time for a new strategy

15th September 2018, Dr Chee L Khoo

Glomerular Hyperfiltration

Although the physiological factors that cause early diabetic renal injury remain incompletely understood, glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) has been associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). GH leads to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation which in turn leads to systemic vascular and endothelial abnormalities. DN not only lead to dialysis and ultimately, renal transplantation in some, it is a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes.…

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