T2D Lipid Management – are you up-to-date


26th June 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

I was recently tasked with preparing a lecture on the current guidelines for lipid management in patients with diabetes. I thought it was quite straight forward. We have known for some years now that the targets are tighter than patients without diabetes. Thus, it can’t be that hard. As I looked into national and international guidelines, it started to get more and more complicated.…

Fenofibrate and retinopathy – when should we use it?

13th June 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


Fenofibrate is a commonly-used lipid lowering agent. In particular, it is recommended for patients with high triglycerides. Two previous studies have demonstrated that fenofibrate reduces the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients who already have DR. Despite the benefits of fenofibrate, we don’t see recommendations for its use featured prominently in guidelines.…

NAFLD – the many treatment options in the pipeline

12th June 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver condition in the western world. A significant proportion of these patients developed inflammation and progressed to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). Further and persistent inflammation can lead to cirrhosis and ultimately, to liver failure or liver cancer. Management till recently is primarily targeted towards lifestyle measures to reduce liver fat.…

CV disease and inflammation – where do the cells come from?

22nd May 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

The close association of inflammation and cardiovascular disease is well known for some time. Inflammation is an essential mediator of all stages of atherosclerosis, from initiation to progression and the development of thrombotic complications (1,2). Circulating immune cells play a critical role in the build-up of atherosclerotic plaques by adhering to activated endothelium and infiltrating the arterial wall to become lesional cells (3).…

PPIs and diabetes – is there a link?


13th May 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

Another month, another commonly used class of drugs are implicated in either aggravating glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or actually, increase the risk of developing T2D. This month, we a report suggesting the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), as a class of agent, is associated with increased risk of developing T2D.…

Perioperative antibiotics – is less actually more?

12th April 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

Antibiotic cover?

We continue to see “routine” antibiotic cover for many surgical procedures. It is not uncommon to see antibiotic prophylaxis used in major surgery like open heart surgery, joint replacement surgery and bowel surgery but the list extends to sinus surgery, routine orthopaedic surgery and not that uncommonly, plastic reconstructive surgery. This is despite international guidelines stating that for clean and clean-contaminated procedures (explicitly including any prosthetic joint arthroplasty with or without a drain, additional prophylactic antimicrobial doses should not be administered after the surgical incision is closed in the operating room.…

Cardiovascular risk predictors – are they any good?

8th April 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

CV Risk Calculator

CVD is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). There are many hundreds of cardiovascular risk prediction tools around. Well, whenever you have many versions of a particular tool, it usually tells us that none of them are particularly good in what they are meant to do – that is to predict the risk of a cardiovascular event.…

Statins in T2D – friend or foe?

12th March 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

Nox family
friend or foe?

When you look at the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), almost all the patients are on a statin for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular complications. I suspect that those that are not already on a statin should be on as some doctors are not aware of the tightened lipid targets in the management of patients with T2D.…

Covid Heart – long term complications of Covid-19

6th March 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

The Covid Heart

This is about the potential cardiovascular complications after contracting covid-19 infection. It is coined “the Covid Heart”. A recent analysis of data from 154,000 US veterans one year out from their covid-19 infection have highlighted some scarry statistics. Naturally, you would expect that those who had more severe disease had higher risks of cardiovascular complications but these complications affect patients who are not hospitalised.…

Familial hypercholesterolaemia is rare but what can it teach us?

27th February 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is one of those conditions that allow us to prescribe the new PCSK9 inhibitors under PBS Authority. It is a pretty rare inherited disorder resulting in extremely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels and significantly elevated risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Despite the extreme high risks, HoFH is usually go unrecognised and if recognised are diagnosed late and undertreated.…

Urolithin reduces aging effects – what is it?

13th February, 2021, Dr Chee L Khoo

getting older

One of the signs of getting old is that you are increasingly drawn to articles about efforts to reduce the effects of aging on health and age-related conditions. The positive effects of direct urolithin A (UA) administration in health, aging, and age-related conditions have been identified in several recent studies. UA is a gut microbiome derived natural compound that only 40% of people can naturally convert from dietary precursors at meaningful levels.…

Quadruple therapy for heart failure – no more excuses

27th January 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

At GPVoice, we have covered the management of heart failure fairly comprehensively over the last couple of years. In particular, we explored the cardiovascular benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) especially in patients with heart failure. Initial studies looked at patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) although subsequent studies found the benefits was also seen in patients with preserve ejection fraction (HFpEF) although only empagliflozin has reported.…