Pregnancy and Pelvic Imaging – who can you trust?

18th August 2021, Spectrum Medical Imaging

We were all taught that we should always see it for ourselves and trust no one when it comes to history and examination. We cannot rely on third party information but sometimes, we have to. When we have to refer patient for imaging, we need to ensure that we can trust the provider and have faith in their experience and quality of reporting.…

Covid-19 and pregnancy outcomes

7th August 2021, Dr Chee L Khoo

It is always difficult for pregnant women to decide whether to have the Covid-19 vaccine during pregnancy. Understandably, they are concerned about the safety of the vaccine administered during pregnancy. When the pandemic started last year, there were some studies which suggest that Covid-19 during pregnancy is associated with “significantly” poor maternal and offspring outcomes.…

Invasive ductal carcinoma – a case study

27th June 2021, Spectrum Medical Imaging

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), which is also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is the most common type of breast cancer. Although invasive ductal carcinoma can affect women at any age, it is more common as women grow older and can also affect men.

A 29-year-old female presented with a palpable lump in the left breast.…

Newer anti-epileptic drugs in pregnancy – how safe are they?

12th June 2021, Dr Chee L Khoo

More than 50 years ago, there were reports of association between anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and birth defects (1). We now have newer AEDs including carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and levetiracetam. In 2016, the UK banned valproate use in women who are not in a pregnancy prevention programme.  Despite that, sodium valproate is still widely prescribed in many countries to women of childbearing age.…

Maternal gestational weight gain – is there a minimum?

30th May 2021, Dr Chee L Khoo

Obesity and GDM are the most common clinical risks in obstetric practice increasing the probability of a variety of pregnancy related complications compared to women with a normal BMI and normal glucose tolerance. These complications include pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), emergency caesarean sections (EMCS), pre-eclampsia (PE), post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), large-for-gestational age infants (LGA) and macrosomia.…

Sex hormones and eye abnormalities – how are they related?

11th January 2021, Dr Chee L Khoo

Sex hormones are not just responsible for the function of the reproductive system. They are also responsible for bone and cardiovascular health. Interestingly, they are produced, not only by the gonads, but also by other organs (1,2) including the central nervous system (CNS). Well, the eye is a neural structure and there is increasing evidence that oestrogens exert a neuro-protective role (3,4).…

In interventional radiology, sometimes you block vessels, other times you unblock them.

27th December, 2020, Spectrum Radiology

Interventional radiology

This month Dr Yehia El Hgar from Spectrum Interventional Radiology discuss two interesting cases: one a 39-year-old female with constant heaviness in the pelvis associated with urinary frequency and severe disabling menorrhagia and the other a 29-year-old female with a past history of left lower limb DVT and underwent a left iliac vein thrombectomy and venoplasty.…

Covid-19 and newborn – scary stuff?

25th October 2020, Dr Chee L Khoo

Covid-19 and newborn

Although our numbers of new Covid-19 infections and community transmission is pretty good in comparison with most other countries in the world, it isn’t zero. This is as good as it gets for at least the next 12 months. One of the scariest things is transmission of the virus to the newborn if the pregnant mother has the Covid-19 infection.…

Can lifestyle measures prevent GDM?

12th October 2020, Dr Chee L Khoo

We know from various diabetes prevention programs that intensive lifestyle interventions can be successful in reducing progression to diabetes. As GDM is more common in women with higher BMI and in the many high- risk groups and it is logical to ask the question “can we prevent GDM in these women?” If we could reduce progression of patients who has prediabetes to diabetes, we should, in theory, reduce prevalence of GDM in women who are at high risk of GDM.…

GDM Screening – Can HbA1c replace OGTT during the pandemic?

14th September 2020, Dr Chee L Khoo

We have many patients who have borderline high fasting glucose in their routine check-up. In non-pregnant adults, we have been able to use HbA1c as a generic screening test for type 2 diabetes (T2D) for some time. Unfortunately, neither non-diabetic fasting glucose readings nor HbA1c totally exclude the presence of diabetes. I am sure you have come across patients with non-diabetic fasting glucose and HbA1c but yet fail their oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).…

GDM screening – who, when and how?

14th September 2020, Dr Chee L Khoo

Tell me this is not, broadly, what you have in mind when you think about gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We know that hyperglycaemia and pregnancy does not mix well. GDM is not quite full-blown diabetes in pregnancy but is nonetheless, associated with risks for the mother and infant and with long-term metabolic consequences in both mother and child.…