COPD – which puffer/s?

10th September 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo


We looked at the new understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD last fortnight. Armed with that information, we may be able to make sense of which puffer to use for which patient and what to escalate during their exacerbations. We already do that but, I must admit, rather haphazardly. It, kind of, depends on what samples I have in the drug cupboard or when the last pharma rep came to sell their ware.…

That receding hairline – what treatment is best?

Androgenetic Alopecia

13th August 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo

Many of the male doctors are slowly losing the battle against male pattern alopecia. It’s either thinning or receding. For those who are not there yet, it’s coming. We are also seeing women joining the club. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in humans affecting 80% of Caucasian men and 50% of Caucasian women.[1].…

Alzheimer Disease treatment – another kid on the block?

26th July 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo

First it was aducanumab then lecanemab. Now it’s donanemab. All of them purportedly showed statistically significant improvement in clinical outcomes although the “significance” is hotly debated. Although aducanumab was the first to be approved by FDA (June 2021), the limited clinical improvement together with the increased risk of severe adverse effects meant that aducanumab is no longer used these days.…

Anti-platelet therapy with PCI – what do you need to know?

29th April 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo

anti-platelet therapy

We have a increasing number of patients who has undergone a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This could be in the acute setting of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or electively during an exploratory angiogram. Stents used to be bare metal. Then came the first-generation drug eluting stents. The latest generation drug eluting stents are better at reducing subsequent thrombosis of the stented and unstented coronary segments.…

Neuropathic pain – what works and what doesn’t?

25th April 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo

We may not have many patients with neuropathic pain but patients with neuropathic pain can be heartsinks. Most of the time, nothing seems to work. It can be quite frustrating when anti-depressants after anti-depressants don’t work. The old tricyclics often don’t work either. What about pregabalin? Nope. What about gabapentin? Nope. What about long-acting opioids or tramadol?…

Familial hypercholesterolaemia – is it really that rare?

9th April 2023, Dr Chee L Khoo

Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

One of the most important contributor to atherosclerosis is elevated cholesterol levels. Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disease that manifests as a disorder of cholesterol metabolism by mutations in hereditary genes usually in an autosomal dominant manner.  Data suggest that 1 in 200 Caucasians are heterozygous for FH and that 1 in 160,000–300,000 are homozygous, which are much higher prevalence than those estimated a decade earlier (1).…

Coronary artery calcium score – who do you trust?

29th December 2022, Spectrum Medical Imaging

Last week we explored coronary artery calcium score and looked at how the score is really more than a score. There is a lot more details than just a number in the report. Spectrum also has a team of subspecialist Cardiac Radiologists and Cardiologists who are trained in cardiovascular imaging interpretation. The report has details that allows us to proceed to the next stage of the cardiovascular risk assessment.…

Dapagliflozin just DELIVERed its findings – new paradigm in HF treatment?


25th September 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

We looked at the Australian guidelines on management of heart failure (HF) recently and in particular, how it impacts upon the management of these patients in primary care. The guidelines recommended the four pillars of management but also reinforced the categories of HF. Did you know that the numbers that define the different categories of HF is somewhat arbitrary?…

Lipoprotein (a) – should we routinely measure in everyone?

28th August 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


We know that low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We also know that reducing LDL-C levels can significantly reduce those risks irrespective of whether they have established cardiovascular disease or not (1). That means reducing LDL-C works in secondary as well as primary prevention. However, even when LDL-C is well-controlled in statin-treated ASCVD patients, there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular disease.…

Time to get together as GPs

26th June 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

Tell me, what time did you get home last night? When did you last work a Saturday or a Sunday? When did you last truly spend time with the whole family? I bet you still fly economy class when you last went overseas. I am not telling you anything you don’t already know. Our rebates have not gone up for > 20 years.…

Fibromyalgia – which drug for which symptom?

23rd May 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo


We all know that the term fibromyalgia is a wishy-washy term used to cover something rather imprecise. Don’t get me wrong. I am not doubting the syndrome but just the name used to refer to the constellation of symptoms of widespread chronic pain, easy physical exhaustion, cognitive difficulties, depressed mood, sleep problems and digestive problems.…

Acute Achilles tendon rupture – is non-surgical treatment just as good?

11th May 2022, Dr Chee L Khoo

I was fortunate to have received ample orthopaedic experience in my training days. I was all destined to be an orthopaedic surgeon but changed my mind. I have seen a few complete Achilles tendon rupture and assisted in many successful surgical repair. Conceptually, you can’t imagine how anyone can plantar flex again if the tendon ends are not reattached surgically.…