Continuous glucose monitoring – what was just announced?

By now, you have heard that the continuous glucose monitoring “button” (Freestyle Libre) has finally been put on the NDSS. It was in the news and current affairs a few weeks ago with an interview of some politician to get their 5 minute of fame. You may even have a few patients come in asking for details. Of course, when you delve into the announcement a bit, you realise that it was a re hatching of some old news.…

Aspirin – which cancers will it benefit?

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends low-dose aspirin use for the prevention of cardiovascular disease among average-risk individuals aged 50 to 59 years with a 10% or greater 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (1). Long-term regular aspirin use is also associated with reduced risk of obesity- and inflammation-associated cancers, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC) (2,3). Numerous follow up trials have consistently demonstrated significant reductions in risk in GI cancers – the NIH-AARP (4), the Nurses Health Study (5) and the Health Professionals Follow-up study (6,7).…

Ubrogepant – the first of the gepants is out now

5th January 2020, Dr Chee L Khoo

Last week, we explore the updated pathophysiology of migraine and foreshadow the arrivals of the gepants and the “mabs”  As the article went to press, the FDA approved the first of the gepants, ubrogepant for the acute (immediate) treatment of migraine with or without aura (in adults. It is not indicated for the preventive treatment of migraine.…

Paediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) – Is it real?

25th December 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

They used to call it “Paediatric Infection Triggered Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders” (PITANDS)(1). Sounds terrible, doesn’t it? They were referring to children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had a sudden onset of their psychiatric symptoms, typically following infection with a variety of agents, including group A streptococcus (pyogenes), varicella and mycoplasma pneumoniae. The subgroup specifically associated with group A streptococcus (GAS) was called “Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections” (PANDAS).…

SGLT2 inhibitors and hospitalisation for heart failure – finally a real trial!

12th December 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

EMPA-REG, CANVAS, DECLARE-TIMI 58 and VERTIS-CV are cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) originally designed to demonstrate non-inferiority of SGLT2 inhibitors versus placebo on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). These clinical trials involving a total of > 36,000 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) followed for 2–5 years. Patients treated with a SGLT2 inhibitor experienced a 25–35% lower risk of hospitalisation for heart failure (HHF).

Vitamin D and Omega 3 Oils – do they have a role in diabetic kidney disease?

24th November 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

It’s not often that we report on trials with negative results but this trial attracted my attention because of many issues it raised when the top-line results were announced in the Journal of American Medical Association a fortnight ago. The conclusion states “supplementation with vitamin D3 or omega-3 fatty acids, compared with placebo, resulted in no significant difference in change in eGFR at 5 years.

Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer – is there a point of no return?

23rd November 2019, Dr Chee L Khoo

Treatment of helicobacter pylori infection (HPi) has been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer (GC) worldwide (1,2). HPi may cause chronic inflammation which can lead to precancerous conditions. Since HPi is not always symptomatic and many patients may have untreated HPi for decades. Surely, if you have untreated HPi for decades, you might still be at risk of GC years down the track despite eradication of the infection.…

The complexity of managing T2D – a GP’s perspective

13th November 2019, Drs Chee Khoo & Sobhy Khalil

We have a contribution from our GP colleague this week. Dr Sobhy Hakeem KHALIL who thoroughly studied the ADA/EASD Management of Hyperglycaemia In Type 2 Diabetes, 2018 Consensus Report and provided his take on the guidelines. I have added my comments to his take (in blue):

  1. They emphasised the importance of life style changes such as weight reduction, physical activities (aerobic and high resistance activities) and smoking cessation.

Anti-coagulant related nephropathy – do you know who is at risk?

6th October 2019. Dr Chee L Khoo

Traditionally, warfarin was the main anticoagulant for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and in patients with significant valvular disease. The newer direct oral anti-coagulants (DOACs) are now the main anti-coagulants used instead of warfarin. However, a common limiting factor in the use of the DOACs is renal impairment. We still have come back to good old warfarin in patients whose eGFR is near 30 mL/min/1.73 m2.…

Pancreatic cancer and T2D – how are they related?

6th October 2019. Dr Chee L Khoo

Last month we looked at the state of play with screening for the deadly disease, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We saw how it may not be useful to screen the general population with the technology that we have but there are select higher risk groups where screening may be useful. Long standing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a modest risk factor for PDAC.…

Oral failure in T2D – what’s next?

28th September 2019. Dr Chee L Khoo

I have known Greg for about 30 years. He is now 63 years old and has amongst many medical conditions, type 2 diabetes (T2D). He is a working class telephony technician. I have seen him and his children grown up. They are now adult kids but Greg, like the usual middle aged Australian, has gradually grown fatter and less healthy over the years.…